EoD SQL Applied – Part 5 / 5 (GWT Applications)

The Dreaded “Not Serializable” Problem

GWT turns all of your Java code into JavaScript, but it also obfuscates everything. With this in mind, it makes serialization a bit more complex than usual. GWT generates a serializer and deserializer for each class that could be transported across the wire to an RPC service. The difficulty comes in knowing which types had code generated, and which didn’t. GWT solves this problem for itself with the Serialization Policy file, where the compiler lists all of the classes that the client code will know how to deserialize.

This however leads to another problem: what happens when something unexpected gets in the way. Hibernate is the most used, and thus most complained about when it comes to Serialization problems. Hibernate turns any Collection object into a special “lazy” implementation that will only load your data when you ask for it. All very fine and well for a server bound application, but a GWT application needs all that data up front for serialization. When GWT comes to sending that List<Message> to the client, it chokes. It knows how to serialize an ArrayList, and LinkedList (since you worked with them on the client side), but a Hibernate List or PersistentCollection is a totally unknown type, so it’s not in the Serialization Policy, so the server side throws an Exception at you.

So how does EoD SQL help with these problems? Read on to find out! 😉 Read the rest of this entry »

EoD SQL Applied – Part 4 / 5 (JavaScript)

JavaScript vs. Web Applications

So far in this series we’ve discussed using DataSets for Swing applications and DataIterators for web-applications. Why would I now bring in JavaScript as something outside of “web-application”? JavaScript applications have very different requirements to a normal web-application. Where a normal web-application has little ability to do things like preload data (like the next page), a JavaScript application may (for example) download the entire data-set and then display it in pages. This next section is about binding to JSON for JavaScript applications.

First thing to remember here is that an EoD SQL DataSet is a List and thus compatible with the Collections API. For this example we’re going to be working with the outstanding GSON API from our friends at Google. Our objective here is to minimize the amount of time spent between the Database and pushing the data to the client. Because GSON doesn’t appear to support Iterable object out-of-the-box, we’re going to start off using a DataSet.
Read the rest of this entry »

Why TraceMonkey is maybe the wrong way

With Firefox 3.5 finally out the door and in use I thought it was time to write something about it that’s been bugging me for a while. TraceMonkey (the new FF JavaScript engine) employs a semi-Hotspot approach to JavaScript compilation. Although the approach is quite different under-the-hood, the basic principal is the same: interpret the code until you know what to optimize. This makes abundant sense to me: why go through the expense of native compiling a method that only ever gets run once? However: there is a hidden expense to doing things this way: your compilation unit is often much smaller. Smaller compilation-units means more compiled code that needs to go back and forth to interpreted code. It also means you can’t optimize as heavily (although that optimization has it’s own massive expense).

Where am I heading with this? I think the TraceMonkey approach adds huge value to a language like Java where an application consists of hundreds and / or thousands of classes (both those in the application and all of it’s dependent APIs), in this case: you’re loading time would be abysmal if you pre-loaded all the possibly used code and native compiled it on start-up. However in the JavaScript world we are limited by the connection, and JavaScript applications (even really huge ones like those written with GWT) are relatively small. In this case it makes more sense to me to either compile everything up front; or run everything interpreted and run a massive compilation in the background (hot-swapping the implementations when you’re finished the compile).

It’s just a thought. Maybe FF should adopt v8 and see what happens?

GWT’s new Event Model – Handlers in GWT 1.6

Theres a lot of concern and worry around the “new event model” in GWT 1.6: throwing out Listeners (a well know and used Java construct) and replacing them with Handlers (a GWT team invention). Let me put your mind at rest, Handlers will make your GWT life much easier.

So what are the differences between Listeners and Handlers?

Listeners Handlers
Have one Listener per event source (ie: “mouse”, “keyboard”, etc) Have one Handler per event type (ie: “mouse press”, “mouse down”, “mouse up”)
Are uncategorized, and the Widget is responsible for sinking / un-sinking the DOM events Are categorized into 2 types: DOM and Logical, adding a DOM Handler to any Widget deferrers to Widget.addDomHandler which sinks events as required
Each Widget uses a ListenerCollection for each class of Listener added All Handlers are stored with a HandlerManager which also manages dispatching any type of event (including new ones you create yourself)
Listeners are removed with the pattern Button .removeClickListener(listener); Adding a Handler returns a HandlerRegistration object, removing a Handler is done by calling HandlerRegistration .removeHandler();
GWT Listeners accept a parameter for each bit of relative event information (ie: sender, mouse x, mouse y) Handlers (more like normal Java Event Listeners) are passed an Event object with all the Event details as their only parameter

So what do Handlers actually buy you in code?

Possibly the most important thing to notice is they take up a lot less space when compiled to GWT. This in mainly due to the fact that their management is centralized in HandlerManager instead of requiring a separate ListenerCollection for each Listener type, and that an implementation only needs a single method overridden (instead of having to listen for events you’re not interested in).

Another point to take note of is that all DOM related Event objects extend from DomEvent. Why is this important? Because DomEvent includes the methods:

  • preventDefault()
  • stopPropagation()
  • getNativeEvent()

I find the last (getNativeEvent()) to be the most useful, it works much the same as Event.getCurrentEvent() and returns a NativeEvent (the new parent class to Event). The advantage of this mechanism over Event.getCurrentEvent() is that you have all the access to the underlying event information (mouse button, modifiers, etc) but attached directly to the dispatched event.


Handlers are a good step forward for GWT, and make abundant sense in a Web environment where code size is very important. They also make it much easier to add you own events since you no longer need to manage your own Listener registration / deregistration cycle or firing of the events to all of the registered Listeners (HandlerManager does it all for you). I think there will be some interesting new patterns emerging with regards to managing events on generated structures (built based on data fetched from the server for example).

I’m looking forward to seeing what comes of these changes.

Easy GWT Database Binding with EoD SQL

Connecting Java to a Database effectively can be a lot of work at the best of times. Sure JDBC does make life easy for us, but theres still turning to ResultSet into nice Java Objects. When you throw GWT into the mix, what was a lot of work becomes a bit of a nightmare (especially when you’re trying to work with JPA or Hibernate). Fortunately EoD SQL comes to the rescue!

For those of you who are either new to my blog or new to EoD SQL, go check-out this little snippet of code over on the EoD SQL homepage. You can think of EoD SQL as a very lightweight Hibernate. It’s also the perfect way to connect you GWT application to your database. Unlike Hibernate and JPA, EoD SQL requires no modification or work-arounds to get it to work perfectly with GWT.

You do need to keep to 2 very simple rules however:

  1. Your Query interfaces may not return DataSet or DataIterator objects (since they require a working JDBC Connection)
  2. You will still need an RPC Servlet between GWT and EoD SQL

That said, there are strong upsides to these “limitations”:

Instead of returning a DataSet or DataIterator: have your Query interfaces return single objects, or arrays of objects. Arrays are heavily optimized by EoD SQL and since your application is actually running in a browser somewhere, you want to provide it with the entire ResultSet (and not lazy-load the data, which is where the default Hibernate and JPA models fall over).

Instead of exposing your database methods directly to the client: you should place the functionality behind a RemoveServiceServlet anyways! Why? Because it gives you a good chance to verify that the user is allowed to take the given action on the database. If, for example, you wrote a forum application, and you had an admin-only “deleteForum” method that you exposed. If the RPC Servlet just deleted the forum and returned, anyone who got hold of the URL and knew anything about GWT RPC could delete every forum in the database. Not really something you want to allow.

EoD SQL works with GWT without any modifications. This is mostly due to the fact that EoD SQL is designed to be a “what you see is what you get” API. The fact that it doesn’t manage parent-child relationships automatically is also advantages in that it forces you to think about what data is going to be needed on the client side. Bare in mind that GWT by it’s very nature runs in a limited environment on the client, sending and receiving complex object graphs is never a good idea. It’s better to lazy-load child relationships when there is a strong chance the child data will not be needed.

I may consider an eod4gwt API which includes a special RPC Servlet implementation for handling EoD SQL requests (which would allow you to put the @Select and @Update annotations in your RemoteService interface). There would need to be a demand for it though 😉

An automated JSON Encoder and Decoder for Java

I posed a little while ago that I’d implemented a JSON Encoding that worked a bit like Java Serialization. It works as such in that you don’t need to encode the objects by hand. As long as you follow some basic rules, the code will automagically turn your Java objects into JSON, and the JSON back into Java objects again. Well, I finally got my act together and the implementation is below. Consider this Public Domain code now! If it doesn’t work for you, it’s not my problem (that said, I’d like to know if it doesn’t work).

Before The implementation, heres a few things to know about it:

  1. It solves the Date problem in such a way that it’s transparent to the JavaScript code!
    1. Dates are encoded as “new Date(UTCTime)”
    2. They are decoded against a collection of date-formats (listed at the top of the JSONDecoder class)
  2. The encoding and decoding work against Reader and Writer objects, and thus have declared IOExceptions
    1. They expect to be closely tied to the Reader and Writer provided by the Servlet Container
  3. They both conform to the Java Beans specs, so if it’s not a bean property, it’s ignored
  4. The decoder can handle both the abstract Collection types and concrete types
    1. public void setUserList(List<User> users)
    2. public void setUserList(ArrayList<User> users)
    3. The Collections must have a solid type declared as their content (in the generic)
  5. Map objects are encoded as JavaScript objects
    1. Map keys must therefore be Strings
    2. The Map keys should be valid JavaScript identifiers

If you are going to use this code, I would appreciate a comment here (just to let me know).

Read the rest of this entry »

Using PropertyChangeListeners to ease GWT Async Calls

A while back I blogged a simple set of classes to make Property Binding easier in GWT, it’s also tied to GWT’s RPC system. I did not, however, provide an example of how this worked. The GWT list sees a lot of questions around asynchronous behavior, so heres an nice little example of how the Property pattern can be used to simplify RPC:

public class MyModule implements ModuleEntryPoint, PropertyChangeListener {
	private final Property<User> user = new Property<User>("user");

	private final TextBox username = new TextBox();

	private final Label firstName = new Label();

	private final Label lastName = new Label();

	private final Label dateOfBirth = new Label();

	public void onModuleLoad() {
		// we need to listen for change events on the "user" Property

		// make a GUI to search and display the User data with
		final Grid grid = new Grid(4, 3);

		grid.setWidget(0, 0, new Label("User Name: "));
		grid.setWidget(0, 1, username);
		grid.setWidget(0, 2, new Button("Load", new ClickListener() {
			public void onClick(final Widget sender) {
				// we need an instance of our pretend RPC service Async interface
				final UserManagerAsync manager = GWT.create(UserManager.class);
				// we ask it to find the user by the name typed into the TextBox
				// and we pass the AsyncCallback as the "user" Property object
				manager.findUser(username.getText(), user);

		grid.setWidget(1, 0, new Label("First Name: "));
		grid.setWidget(1, 1, firstName);
		grid.setWidget(2, 0, new Label("Last Name: "));
		grid.setWidget(2, 1, lastName);
		grid.setWidget(3, 0, new Label("Birth Date: "));
		grid.setWidget(3, 1, dateOfBirth);


	public void propertyChanged(final SourcesPropertyChangeEvents source, final String propertyName,
			final Object oldValue, final Object newValue) {

		if(propertyName.equals("user")) {
			// if the service returned null (no User found) we clear the labels
			if(newValue == null) {
			} else {
				// otherwise fetch the new User object and fill in the labels
				final User u = user.get();

To understand this code better you should look at the original post where I detailed the supporting
classes (PropertyChangeListener, Property, etc.).

Easy Property Binding and Aync Callbacks in GWT

This is a little technique I came up with a few days ago that makes Async Callbacks a lot easier. It also adds something a lot like Property Bindings to GWT with very little work.

public interface PropertyChangeListener {
    void propertyChanged(SourcesPropertyChangeEvents source, String propertyName, Object oldValue, Object newValue);

public interface SourcesPropertyChangeEvents {
    void addPropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener);

    void addPropertyChangeListener(String propertyName, PropertyChangeListener listener);

    void removePropertyChangeListener(PropertyChangeListener listener);

    void removePropertyChangeListener(String propertyName, PropertyChangeListener listener);


public class PropertyChangeListenerCollection extends AbstractCollection<PropertyChangeListener> {
    private final Map<String, Set<PropertyChangeListener>> listeners = new HashMap<String, Set<PropertyChangeListener>>();

    private Set<PropertyChangeListener> getListenersForProperty(final String name) {
        Set<PropertyChangeListener> set = listeners.get(name);

        if(set == null) {
                set = new HashSet<PropertyChangeListener>();
                listeners.put(name, set);

        return set;

    // this is a simple utility method that avoids duplicate copies of the same
    // PropertyChangeListener
    private Set<PropertyChangeListener> getAllListeners() {
        final Set<PropertyChangeListener> all = new HashSet<PropertyChangeListener>();

        for(final Set<PropertyChangeListener> set : listeners.values()) {

        return all;

    public void add(final PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        add(null, listener);

    public void add(final String property, final PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if(listener != null) {

    public void remove(final PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if(listener != null) {
            for(final Set<PropertyChangeListener> set : listeners.values()) {

    public void remove(final String property, final PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if(listener != null) {

    // although unused I've provided a simple implementation of the size method
    public int size() {
        return getAllListeners().size();

    public Iterator<PropertyChangeListener> iterator() {
        return getAllListeners().iterator();

    public void firePropertyChangeEvent(final SourcesPropertyChangeEvents source, final String name,
            final Object oldValue, final Object newValue) {

        final Set<PropertyChangeListener> propertyListeners = new HashSet<PropertyChangeListener>();

        for(final PropertyChangeListener l : propertyListeners) {
            l.propertyChanged(source, name, oldValue, newValue);

public class Property<T> implements SourcesPropertyChangeEvents, PropertyChangeListener, AsyncCallback<T> {
    private final String name;
    private T value;
    private PropertyChangeListenerCollection listeners;

    public Property(final String name) {
        this(name, null);

    public Property(final String name, final T initialValue) {
        this.name = name;
        this.value = initialValue;

    public void set(final T newValue) {
        final T oldValue = value;
        value = newValue;

        if(listeners != null) {
            listeners.firePropertyChangeEvent(this, name, oldValue, newValue);

    public T get() {
        return value;

    public void onSuccess(final T newValue) {

    public void onFailure(final Throwable error) {
        if(GWT.getUncaughtExceptionHandler() != null) {

    public void propertyChanged(final SourcesPropertyChangeEvents source, final String propertyName,
        final Object oldValue, final Object newValue) {


    public void addPropertyChangeListener(final PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if(listeners != null) {
            listeners = new PropertyChangeListenerCollection();


    public void addPropertyChangeListener(final String propertyName, final PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if(listeners != null) {
            listeners = new PropertyChangeListenerCollection();

        listeners.add(propertyName, listener);

    public void removePropertyChangeListener(final PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if(listeners != null) {

    public void removePropertyChangeListener(final String propertyName, final PropertyChangeListener listener) {
        if(listeners != null) {
            listeners.remove(propertyName, listener);


Instead of storing your bindable properties as normal fields: you simply wrap them in Property objects. You can then use the fact that Property objects both produce and consume propertyChangeEvents to bind them together, and even pass them into RPC methods to be set when the server hands the data back to you.

They rely on a PropertyChangeListenerCollection class that I haven’t given here, but it’s a simple enough class to write.

11-November-2008: I added in an implementation of the PropertyChangeListenerCollection class.

Give it a try, it makes life a surprising amount easier considering it’s size.

A useful GWT RPC pattern I’ve been using

GWT RPC calls can wind up all over your code, doing all sorts of weird things. If you’re not careful about how you code them you can end up with bugs and other problems cropping up. The other part of RPC calls is that some of them are actually recoverable, and may even be retried a few times before giving up.

I developed the following little bit of code recently that may be useful to anyone doing RPC in GWT:

public abstract class RetryAction<T> implements AsyncCallback<T> {
    public abstract void attempt();
    public abstract void oncapture(T value);

    public void onFailure(Throwable error) {
        try {
            throw error;
        } catch(InvocationException invocationException) {
            Window.alert("A fatal error occurred, you should login " +
                "again or contact Technical Support");
        } catch(IncompatibleRemoteServiceException remoteServiceException) {
            Window.alert("A fatal error occurred, you should login " +
                "again or contact Technical Support");
        } catch(SerializationException serializationException) {
            Window.alert("A fatal error occurred, you should login " +
                "again or contact Technical Support");
        } catch(Throwable throwable) {
            String message = throwable.getLocalizedMessage();

            if(message == null) {
                message = throwable.getMessage();

            if(message == null) {
                message = throwable.getClass().getName();

            if(Window.confirm("An error occured:\n" + message + "\n" +
                "You may retry this operation by clicking 'OK'.\n" +
                "However if the error persists, contact Technical Support.")) {


    public void onSuccess(T value) {
        try {
        } catch(RuntimeException error) {

The way this structure works is that you implement your RPC call in the “attempt” method, and the callback in the “oncapture” method. If a “non-fatal” error occurred, the user is given the opportunity to “Retry” the operation (resulting in another call to “attempt”). The pattern groups the RPC invocation nicely with it’s response logic. Here’s a little example:

public class GetContactListAction extends RetryAction<Contacts&#91;&#93;> {
    private ContactList contacts;

    public GetContactListAction(ContactList display) {
        contacts = display;

    public void attempt() {

    public void oncapture(Contact[] data) {

And then to use this action:

GetContactListAction action = new GetContactListAction(contactList);

Why GWT is here to stay

I’ve been developing with plain JavaScript for several years now, long before the AJAX craze started (when my spell-checker posted a hidden iframe back to the server and such). Why would I be an advocate of GWT when I’ve written web-apps that include over 10’000 lines of JavaScript? Lets think of this a slightly different way: Why wouldn’t I be an advocate of GWT when I’ve had to maintain 10’000 lines of JavaScript?

Some of the common misconceptions about GWT:

  • GWT is for people who don’t want to or can’t code JavaScript
  • GWT is only there to hide browser differences (and there are plenty of JavaScript API’s that do this)
  • GWT produces bloated JavaScript files
  • GWT doesn’t let a graphic designer produce the User Interface
  • GWT takes away the raw power of JavaScript
  • GWT is a plain Java to JavaScript compiler

I see these complaints everywhere. Those who make them are mostly PHP developers, or people who have never worked on a commercial browser based system that requires large amounts of JavaScript.

At this point, let me say something about GWT that I don’t see explicitly said often enough:

GWT is a Web Application framework!

GWT’s space is not in putting an auto-completing text-input on an otherwise fairly static HTML page. There are plenty of JavaScript API’s that will do that for you. GWT is not “Swing for the browser” either! GWT is more like the Java Desktop Application Framework, or the Netbeans Platform. GWT is not about simply building a user-interface, it’s about reducing the load on your server.

A serious flaw in web frameworks like Struts or WebWork is the amount of data they store in the session. The unfortunate fact is that storing data in your session is very expensive for your server cluster. It’s fine running on a single machine; or if you have very intelligent load balancers, however: running on a larger cluster, or trying to handle tens-of-thousands of simultaneous users becomes really hard.

Why is the session expensive?

In Java you have wonderful Serialization of objects. References are correctly rebuilt when loading a serialized object and so on. Using an HttpSession in a clustered environment however, means that every object in the Session is re-written across the network at the end of every request. Why not just the objects that have changed? The answer is simple: how do you know which have changed?

Struts for example stores all of the Action objects in the Session. Thats potentially a lot of objects to store, and move around between servers. How does this relate to GWT though? In GWT you can place your “index” page behind a standard Filter or a <security> mapping in your Web XML to handle the login of your users, and have GWT work through a service style system, where your servers act in a stateless manor. This drastically reduces the load on your servers, since they no longer need to hold session data in memory or synchronize it with the other servers at the end of each request. In fact, the GWT application can cache the resulting data on the users browser instead of in the Session!

But what about my Graphic Designer?

When developing a desktop application, you generally have a user interface designer working with you (if you don’t, go hire one). Like I’ve already said: GWT is for building applications that happen to run inside a web browser. If you are building a web site, you should probably look at a different technology (though keep GWT in mind all the same). A user interface designer is often not a developer, and so can’t actually write the user interface.

The other side of this argument is: what is your web designer doing writing your HTML?!?!?! In my experience,the web designer produces an image (often in PhotoShop) of the look & feel for the site, and then provides you with the graphical elements you need as you write the HTML for the site. Having a web designer produce HTML is always a bad idea, no matter how much they know about it. If nothing else: HTML limits their creativity.

But I know plenty of JavaScript, why hide it behind Java?

A note to those with this argument:

  • Get off your high horse and get back to work

JavaScript is a very powerful language, GWT is not hiding it away behind Java. If you need to code JavaScript in your GWT application: use JSNI, thats what it’s there for. The problem with AJAX is not JavaScript, it’s the way it’s implemented across different browsers. You eventually wind up with loads of “if(browser == IE)” and such all the way through your JavaScript. I won’t even bother to mention the nightmare that is passing events in JavaScript. GWT neatly deals with all of that for you, without any browser checks in the produced code (well, there is one to decide which version of the application to load).


GWT does not cripple you by having you code Java, it empowers you to do more with less code. The amount of code produced is often smaller than the pure JavaScript API’s that hide browser differences. It’s also a lot easier to work with.

You spend more time working on your application logic and less time re-inventing the wheel.